Blake Street Energy’s primary goal for each project is to divert the maximum amount of waste possible from landfills. This is accomplished through the installation of state-of-the-art waste separation equipment, which, through a combination of mechanical and human separation, is capable of converting Municipal Solid Waste (“MSW”) and other waste streams into clean, reusable materials.
Instead of disposing of waste in landfills, which are currently used for over 97% of waste disposal in Russia, waste is delivered to our facilities. There it is separated into: (i) plastics, metals, and glass for recycling; (ii) combustible waste, which is converted into a fuel used cleanly in place of fossil fuels; (iii) compost; and (iv) heavy, inert materials used to re-cultivate and close existing landfills. Blake Street`s projects are typically sized to process between 400 – 1 000 tons per day of waste, and can beneficially re-use use up to 100% of the incoming waste, creating a much cleaner and safer environment for our communities.
The typical composition of household waste in Russia can be seen in the pie chart below:
How the Waste is Separated
Our facilities are typically designed to include three separate areas – the Waste Delivery Area, the Waste Separation Area, and the Solid Recovered Fuel Area. The overall facility layout resembles the following:
The Waste Delivery Area
The Waste Delivery Area is the area where incoming waste is delivered to the facility by a variety of vehicles, and unloaded onto a concrete tipping floor. The area is fully enclosed to minimize odors, dust, and sound, with vehicles entering and exiting through doors.
Two inspectors typically work in this area to provide visual inspection for potentially hazardous materials (e.g. medical waste, paint, or construction debris) and other types of waste which should not be introduced into the Waste Separation Area. Acceptable waste is then fed by a front-end wheel loader into a feed conveyor, where a metering drum is used to provide a uniform flow of materials downstream.
The Waste Separation Area
Waste is then delivered by conveyor into the Waste Separation Area. Here, ferrous material is separated using a drum magnet, which is then conveyed to an outside bunker for later shipment to scrap metal buyers. All non-ferrous waste is then further conveyed into a rotary trommel, which is essentially a perforated, screened cylinder used to separate materials by size. It is elevated at the feed end, and size separation is achieved through materials spiraling down and around the rotating drum, allowing materials smaller in size than the screen openings to pass through, while larger materials exit at the opposite end. The size of the openings is typically 200mm. The trommel’s primary goal is to remove food and smaller, inert materials from the waste stream, which can be used as compost and for landfill closure.
Materials which have fallen through the trommel are then visually inspected by 4-6 sorters, whose primary task is to remove glass bottles for recycling. Larger materials exiting the trommel, and for fines of the same size coming from the glass breaker disc screen, are sent individually to corresponding air separators, used to separate light, plastic materials (which are then conveyed to an optical sorter, which is able to separate various types of plastic) and heavier materials, which enter the SRF Area.
During this process, an eddy current is also used to capture non-ferrous metals, by using an alternating magnetic field to gather this material from the conveyor. All separation areas pass through a manual quality control at the end of the conveyor process, before entering outside bunkers, where they are held for recycling.
The Solid Recovered Fuel (“SRF”) Area
Approximately 40-45% of the initial, incoming waste then exits the Waste Separation Area, where it is converted into SRF. This material is the combustible portion of the initial waste, which has no reliable market for recycling (for example, clothes, yard waste, mixed plastics, and often paper and cardboard). Here, shredders are used to create a consistent fuel, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels for the production of cement, steam, hot water, and/or electricity. SRF is typically scanned for heat and moisture content, which ensures a high-end product for our end users.